Canola Performance Trials

2017 Canola Performance Trials Small Plot Protocol

     
  • The goal of the Canola Performance Trials (CPT) is to evaluate currently available commercial canola seed varieties available to farmers. Yield differences should be due to genetic differences only, not due to high weed, disease or insect pressure. For research trials, this may mean taking pest control action below economic thresholds used for commercial production.

  • Use best practices for pest control to lessen impact of pest damage for best results. Local contractor to make the best choice for product for each stie. Ensure products are applied at the right time and right rate. CPT coordinator, CCC Agronomist or Provincial Oilseed Specialist can provide input if required.

Site Selection:

Sites should be selected where trial protocols will fit logistically. Sites should be:

  • Easily accessible

  • Uniform and well-drained, avoiding low area, areas with known infestation of quackgrass, Canada thistle or herbicide tolerant weeds

  • Headlands of fields to be excluded from test area

  • Not on a tight rotation - break from canola for past three growing seasons

  • With a co-operator with time and tolerance to participate in this trial

  • Sites with no rotational issues such as herbicide residue or disease pressure (severe blackleg)

  • No history of clubroot

Other Considerations

  • Disease: Sclerotinia stem rot and other diseases will need to be controlled with fungicide. Treat entire site with the same product/rate/timing.

  • Weeds: Document the weeds and stages at spraying time and those that survive / emerge after spraying. This is important because weeds / time or removal have a large influence on yield and you can expect weeds to be spatially / temporally variable across the plots.

  • Sprayer tank contamination: Ensure proper clean-out (triple rinse, use of ammonia) of tank between herbicide applications. If equipment available, use separate tanks for the 3 herbicide systems (RR, LL, and Clearfield).

  • Spray drift: Ensure there is no risk of drift by establishing a “no-spray zone” of 10m around the trial area. Low drift nozzles and shrouds are required to be used during herbicide application to ensure that there is no drift between herbicide treatments within the trials.

  • Seed: Treated seed will be provided to cooperators. Allowable seed treatments are Helix Vibrance or Prosper Evergol or Visivio. No other seed treatments, biological, fertilizer dressings or other growth promoters are allowed.

  • General Management: All management aspects must be as similar as possible between trial systems - fertility, seeding rate, seeding date, spraying, swathing, and harvest. All plots to be seeded on the same day.

  • Site Audits: Each site will be inspected and audited by members of the committee or by the CPT coordinator to ensure quality of data. CCC Crop Production and Innovation team members are allowed to visit the sites and potentially take drone images (exclusively for internal and CPT Technical Committee use) of the plots throughout the growing season. GPS coordinates and site coordinator contact information to be provided to CPT coordinator by June 15 each season.

  • Trial Design: Randomized Complete Bloc Design with 4 replications. Herbicide Systems will be blocked to minimize the potential for injury. The outside of the replications should have at least one guard plot. Seed for guard plots to be supplied as well as the seed for each individual variety. Trials may need to be sprayed with individual plot sprayer to reduce drift potential. Trial to be designed by CPT coordinator and randomizations and plot plans sent to field cooperators. Trial design TO NOT BE ALTERED.

 

Small plot System - Standard Protocol

     
  • Plot Dimensions: Plot width will be dependent upon seeding equipment width. Approximately 1.5 to 2.1m wide X 5m or 6m long = 7.5m2 to 12.5m2. Guard-rows composed of the same variety that is in each plot.

  • Seeding Rate:
    • Seed each plot so that they produce 10-15 seeds/square foot.

    • Preference is for seed size between 4 and 6 grams per 1000 seeds.

    • Seed companies to provide thousand seed weight and germination results for all entries, tested within the last 6 months.

  • Fertilizer Rate:
    • Fertilizer blend and rate should be used in accordance with soil tests or local recommendations and applied at the same rate for all varieties.

    • Fertilize to achieve target yields of 55 bu/ac. If this is not achievable, or this is too low for your area, indicate target yield along with applied fertilizer.

  • Herbicide Applications: Spray timing at 3 leaf stage. Spraying the 3 treatments at a location should be done all on the same day.
    • PLEASE NOTE: The weed control in each plot should reflect the efficacy of the product corresponding herbicide/technology, i.e. Clearfield, Liberty or Roundup. Only rates, reapplication and tank mixes as per herbicide label are allowed. Weed-free situation is not required. Application of additional weed control measures (herbicides or hand weeding) is allowed only under exceptional circumstances (and must be discussed with CPT Coordinator prior to additional applications)

    • Roundup Ready Lines - Round Up - 0.5L/ac or 1.25L/ha, Water vol. - 45 l/ac

    • LibertyLink Lines - Liberty - 1.35L/ac or 3.33L/ha Tank mix Centurion - 76ml/ac or 188ml/ha plus 0.5% (v/v) Merge: Water vol - 110 l/ac

    • Clearfield Lines - Odyssey 17.4 g/ac plus Equinox@ 67 ml/ac plus Merge @0.5 L in 100L of spray solution

  • Fungicide/Insecticide Applications: Apply as needed. Use label directions for application timing, product amounts and water volumes. Record crop stage, product used, rate, etc. It is preferable to apply product in perpendicular to the direction of seeding (e.g. plots seeded North-South direction, spray across travelling east-west). If insects are present, but not at levels high enough control, make note of pests present.

  • Swathing: Swath, push or desiccate trials when the plots exhibit >60% seed colour change. If guard rows are used, ensure that the guard rows are left standing.

  • Harvest: Harvest the trial when seed moisture is <10%. Combine should be equipped with an automated weigh and moisture reading system. If guard rows are used for any purpose, ensure that no guard-row seed enters the combine.

  • Yield collection: final plot yields to be reported in bu/ac. Yields will be adjusted based on seed moisture corrected to 8.5 % moisture.

  • Visitor Sanitation: See the ‘Operational Guidelines for Conducting Field Research’ section in the Appendix.

 

Small plot System - Straight-cut entry protocol

     
  • Straight-cut protocol is identical to the Standard protocol stated above for plot dimensions, seeding rate, fertilizer rate, herbicide applications, and fungicide/insecticide applications.

  • Straight-Cut Entries:

    • Each straight-cut entry will be entered into the Straight-cut entry protocol

    • Seed companies can choose if an entry goes into the standard protocol above, the straight-cut entry protocol, or both.

    • Straight-cut entries are to be straight-cut combined at ~12% moisture (aiming for 12% and definitely under 15% moisture), unless the CPT coordinator advises otherwise (in the case of extreme/irregular weather conditions).

Information to be recorded:

  • An excel spreadsheet will be provided to all site coordinators to record the following information.

    • Soil test information (standard excel form will be provided for consistent data collection)

    • Seeding date

    • Herbicide application information
      • Dates, products, rate and water volume

    • Weeds present, and weeds not controlled

    • Target yield
      • Fertilize to achieve a target yield of 55 bu/ac. If this is not achievable, or too low for your area, indicate alternative target yield.

    • Applied fertilizer
      • Method, product, actual rates applied in lbs/ac

    • Environmental information
      • Soil moisture, rainfall, GDD, frost events.

    • Plant counts
      • 2 to 3 weeks after seeding, record the number of plants/m2 for each plot. The mean of three subsamples for each plot to be recorded.

    • Fungicide and/or insecticide application information
      • Date, products, rates and water volumes (if applied)

    • Maturity
      • Days from planting to swathing will be based on the majority of the plants in the plot at 60% seed colour change, assessment to be made on all plots.

    • Lodging resistance
      • Measured on the degree of lean to the lower stem of the plant on a 1 to 5 scale. Lodging notes recorded at time of swathing.

    • Height
      • In cm on 10 randomly chosen plants in each plot. Height recorded at swathing.

    • Swathing date

    • Harvest date

    • Seed moisture at harvest

    • Desiccation date (if applicable)

For audit process:

  • Plot uniformity - notes should be taken through the season on the uniformity of each plot. These notes are to record any factors that have reduced plant stand or yield potential.

  • Weed Density & Control - notes should be taken on weed spectrum, density and control. These notes are to record any factors that have reduced plant stand or yield potential. Weed control for all weeds to be rated on 1 to 10 scale, where 1 is poor and 10 is excellent. To be recorded for each plot. Below is a list of reasons that a trial or location should be considered not valid: Sites should be selected where trial protocols will fit logistically.

  • Spray drift: Recommendation of low drift nozzles and shrouds are required to be used during herbicide application to reduce drift between herbicide treatments within the trials. Ensure proper clean-out (triple rinse, use of ammonia) of tank between herbicide applications. Look for patterns of drift in field. If spray drift present but on areas not to be used as harvest yield, variety plot or trials may still be accepted. If drift occurs in area to be used as yield test, then that variety strip should be excluded from the trial results. If occurs widespread on entire trial, then entire trial will not be approved for data use.

 

Reasons for Rejecting a Trial or a Site

     
  • Hail - any hail at all and this site should be rejected

  • Obvious high disease or insect pressure. These are patchy by nature

  • Off-label herbicide applications or any herbicide application errors

  • Spray drift that cannot be accounted for

  • Agronomic issues

  • Incorrect swathing timing

  • Site-selection - pot-holes

  • Seeding issues/stand establishment, etc.

  • Lack of Researcher personnel and/or weigh wagon present at harvest

  • Other acts of God causing big damage:
    • Gophers or other wild-life

    • Tornado - plough winds

    • Yields less than 10bu/ac.

  • CPT Technical Committee has final say whether data is valid. For example, site CV and input from cooperators are taken into account with all sites.

Vehicle Sanitation Procedures:

  1. The largest clearly established factor contributing to clubroot spread in Alberta is contaminated soil on agricultural equipment. Do not drive into field or access, but park on the road whenever possible.
    • Exceptions can be made for field-trials with permission of the grower. In these cases vehicle sanitation procedures will apply. Industry personnel can walk into fields but must follow human sanitation procedures.

  2. Vehicles should especially stay out any of these fields following a rain – wet soil is much more difficult to remove than dry.

  3. If a vehicle enters a field in the infested municipalities then it will follow these procedures:
    • Before entering any field, vehicles and equipment must be clean. Growers should be encouraged to inspect any vehicles/equipment as well. This will reduce concern that soil (infested or not) is being transported.

    • When leaving the field, knock off all clumps of soil in field before leaving field – preferably not in the field’s approach, but off to one side.

    • If a pressure washer is available, pressure wash any visible soil, focus on tires, undercarriage, and any other parts that may have contact with soil. If this is not available, drive directly to a car-wash and clean vehicle and equipment as best as possible.

    • Mist down tires and other points of contact with a disinfectant, such as 1-2% bleach solution (bleach can be corrosive), HyperOx or EcoClear. This disinfectant process should be the last step, since most disinfectants do not effectively penetrate soil. The disinfectant will need to be in contact for 15 to 20 minutes with the pathogen to be effective. Vehicles and equipment need to be clean and free of soil for the disinfectant process to be effective.

Human Sanitation Procedures:

If industry personnel enter a field in any potentially infested regions, whether it is known to have clubroot or not, they are to follow these human sanitation procedures:

  • Wear disposable footwear that can be removed immediately after leaving the field. Another option is to use rubber boots or other footwear that can be sterilized (misted) with a disinfectant solution (10% bleach) upon leaving the field.

  • Dispose of the disposable footwear in a sterile fashion. Sealing in a garbage bag and burning is preferred. Do not reuse disposable footwear.

  • Clean and disinfect any tools that may have been in contact with soil in the field.

 

Canola Variety Trials – Field-Scale Plot Protocol

Site Selection:

Sites should be selected where trial protocols will fit logistically. Sites should be:

  • Easily accessible

  • Uniform and well-drained, avoiding low area, areas with known infestation of quackgrass, Canada thistle or herbicide tolerant weeds.

  • Headlands of fields to be excluded from test area

  • Not on a tight rotation - break from canola for past three growing seasons

  • With a co-operator with time and tolerance to participate in this trial

  • Sites with no rotational issues such as herbicide residue or disease pressure (severe blackleg)

  • No history of clubroot

Other Considerations

  • Spray drift:
    • Recommendation of low drift nozzles and shrouds are required to be used during herbicide application to reduce drift between herbicide treatments within the trials.
    • Ensure proper clean-out (triple rinse, use of ammonia) of tank between herbicide applications.
    • Look for patterns of drift in field. If spray drift present but on areas not to be used as harvest yield, variety plot or trials may still be accepted.
    • If drift occurs in area to be used as yield test, then that variety strip should be excluded from the trial results. If drift occurs widespread on entire trial, then entire trial will not be approved for data use.
  • Seed:
    • Where possible, the same seed source must to be used for all trial locations, with a seed treatment that it is available to producers.
    • Allowable seed treatments should be specified and limited to standard fungicide/insecticide combinations (e.g. Prosper and Helix Xtra). If a biological or other advanced treatment is used, it must be used across all entries.
    • Seed additives such as biological or phosphate dressings are discouraged. If seed not available without additives, then to be used but additive must be indicated. Talk to other seed companies participating in trials about accessing ‘demo’ seed lots for use in field scale trials.
    • Material Transfer Agreement to be signed between companies providing and using seed. Keep records of seed lots used and report information to CPT Coordinator.
  • General Site Management
    • All management aspects must be as similar as possible between plots – fertility, seeding rate, seeding date, spraying, swathing, and harvest (outside of the pod shatter resistant hybrids).
  • Site Audits:
    • Trial locations will be inspected and audited by members of the committee or by the coordinator to ensure quality of data.
  • Trial Maps:
    • Mark the plot area for each variety with visible markers (flags, stakes, etc.) and record GPS co-ordinates. Indicate on markers the variety in the plot.
    • Trial area and specific variety area to be marked the day of seeding.
    • Maps indicating the location of the trial and the arrangement of varieties within the trial to be forwarded to the CPT coordinator after the first company inspection to ensure plot uniformity, plant counts and weed control.
    • Trial map to include map of trial configuration, seeding date, seeding depth, pre-seed herbicide application (if any), fertilizer application rate, plot uniformity rating, plant count ratings, weed control ratings any issues that occurred during seeding. Location of trial, directions and all pertinent information is due to the CPT Coordinator by July 1st of the growing season.
    • Information on the varieties entered into the various field scale trials will be shared with all participants in the CPT program, so independent visits can be arranged between companies to see their variety and the competitor varieties over different growing regions and under different conditions.
    • CCC Crop Production and Innovation team members are allowed to visit the sites and potentially take drone images (exclusively for internal and CPT Technical Committee use) of the plots throughout the growing season. GPS coordinates and site coordinator contact information to be provided to CPT coordinator by July 1 each season.
    • Entries:
      • The canola varieties to be tested in the field scale will be selected from the list of entries in the small plot trials.
      • A common check variety, established by the CPT technical committee needs to be incorporated into the entry list of the trial.
        • If a LibertyLink only trial, L252 to be included in all sites for inclusion in CPT
        • If a Roundup Ready only, 45H33 to be included all sites for inclusion in CPT
        • It a site contains both LibertyLink and Roundup Ready varieties, then both L252 and 45H33 are to be included for inclusion into CPT
        • Additional entries submitted for CPT inclusion must be entered into the CPT small plot program
      • If entries are not replicated in the same field, the check varieties listed above are to be repeated in the field every fourth plot to account for, and reduce field variability. If trial entries are replicated in the same field, each entry needs to be replicated a minimum of two times.
      • Seed will be available for purchase through the marketing company representing the variety.
      • Preferably the check variety should be repeated in the field every fourth variety to account for and reduce field variability.
      • A common seed source of the specified check variety has been set aside by the marketing company. Please contact the marketing company to acquire check seed.
      • Material Transfer Agreements to be made between the companies transferring seed.
    • Straight-cut entries
      • Field-scale straight-cut trials are welcome for inclusion in the CPT program. We recommend L140P be included in the straight-cut trials.
      • Straight-cut protocol is identical to the Standard protocol stated above for seeding rate, fertilizer rate, herbicide applications, and fungicide/insecticide applications
      • If a desiccant is used, follow product label timings and rates
      • Plot widths are subject to growers seeding equipment and straight cut header width
      • Ensure seeded hybrid strips are at least 1.5X width of the straight cut header that is to be used at harvest
      • If possible, plant a practice strip beside the trial. This will be utilized for adjusting straight cut settings on the combine and to check grain moistures for best harvest practices
      • Harvest should start once grain moisture is ~12%, unless weather dictates taking it off at higher moisture.
      • Harvest the full header width for each strip, in the same area of the drill width for every hybrid.
      • Avoid mowing between strips in the plot area (this could negatively affect the canopy if areas are opened within the stand)
      • Participating seed companies to submit their straight-cut protocols and locations by June 1 of each year to the CPT coordinator.
    • Seeding Rate:
      • Seed each plot so that they produce 10-15 seeds/square foot.
      • Preference is for seed size between 4 and 6 grams per 1000 seeds.
      • Seed companies to provide thousand seed weight and germination results for all entries, tested within the last 6 months.
    • Seeding:
      • All varieties must be planted within 24 hours. A minimum of one person in addition to the producer operating the seeding equipment is required to be present during seeding. Additional person will mark boundaries of individual variety strips, record GPS waypoints, record environmental information at time of seeding and any observations or issues that occurred at time of seeding.
    • Fertilizer Rate:
      • Fertilizer blend and rate should be used in accordance with soil tests and applied at the same rate for all plots.
      • Seeding is recommended to be done perpendicular to direction of fertilizer pre-banding
      • Fertilizer rates should target 55 bu/ac. If for some reason they are not able to meet that target or if it is significantly below the average canola yields for that site, they should report the target yield.
    • Herbicide Applications:
      • Plant staging of crop and weeds species to be recorded, as well weed spectrum. Herbicide used, herbicide rate, adjuvant/surfactant/spreader all to be recorded. Spraying of all varieties in the trial should occur on the same day. Second applications of herbicides may be applied to control misses, late flushes of weeds, etc. Must be recorded to include in economic analysis.
      • PLEASE NOTE: The weed control in each plot should reflect the efficacy of the product corresponding herbicide/technology, i.e. Clearfield, Liberty or Roundup. Only rates, reapplication and tank mixes as per herbicide label are allowed. Weed-free situation is not required. Application of additional weed control measures (herbicides or hand weeding) is allowed only under exceptional circumstances (and must be discussed with CPT Coordinator prior to additional applications).
    • Fungicide/Insecticide Applications:
      • Apply as needed. Use label directions for application timing, product amounts and water volumes.
      • Record crop stage, product used, rate, etc. It is preferable to apply product in perpendicular to the direction of seeding (e.g. plots seeded North-South direction, spray across travelling East-West).
      • Spraying should be considered when a pest or disease reached economic thresholds used by growers. If insects are present, but not at economic threshold levels, make note of pests present.
    • Swathing:
      • Swath trials when the plots exhibit >60% seed colour change. Varieties within the trial may need to be swathed on different dates to accurately achieve 60% seed colour change.
      • A minimum of one person in addition to the producer operating the swather is required to be present during swathing. Additional person will assist in assessing varieties for seed colour change and swathing timing, assist in determining boundaries of individual variety strips for swathing protocols to achieve ‘true’ tests, record height and lodging notes on varieties prior to swathing. Record observations or issues that occurred at time of swathing.
      • If a producer is determined to straight-cut trials, the approval must be given prior to start of the operation. Interest in straight-cutting should be discussed at time of seeding.
      • Take a full cut down the centre of the plot for the full length for each entry in the trial.
      • Leave an un-cut swather pass between the varieties where they meet in the field to be sure that a “true” test is being done to compensate for herbicide drift and for possible mixing of the varieties along the split line. After a full swather cut has been done for each variety, the uncut pass can be swathed.
      • Make sure the full swather pass has been marked.
    • Harvest:
      • Harvest the trial when seed moisture is <10%. Combine should be equipped with an automated weigh and moisture reading system.
      • Weigh-wagon:
        • Make sure weigh-wagon calibrated properly prior to each trial harvest.
      • Combine:
        • Make sure grower begins harvesting the plots with an empty hopper (prime on surrounding canola and dump) and harvest only the strips as per the swathing protocol.
        • Measure the exact length and width of each of the strips.
        • Make sure combine hopper is empty after each variety.
        • Length of swath should be accounted and adjusted for missing areas due to extenuating circumstances. Areas that are questionable (due to ponding, wildlife damage) should NOT be harvested, but left and strip length adjusted.
      • Alternative to weigh wagon –an inspected certified scale found at a fertilizer retailer, grain elevator or seed plant.
      • Moisture Adjustment: Ensure that a moisture meter is present at harvest to record %seed moisture. These values will be used to make yield corrections based on this formula:
        • (100 – %Moisture)* yield / 90 = yield corrected to 8.5% moisture
      • Yields to be recorded and presented in bu/ac.

    Information to be recorded:

    • Soil test information
    • Seeding date
    • Herbicide application information
      • Dates, products, rate and water volume
    • Weeds present, and weeds not controlled
    • Target yield
      • Fertilize to achieve a target yield of 55 bu/ac. If this is not achievable, or too low for your area, indicate alternative target yield.
    • Applied fertiizer
      • Method, product, actual rates applied in lbs/ac
    • Environmental information
      • Soil moisture, rainfall, GDD, frost events.
    • Plant counts
      • 2 to 3 weeks after seeding, record the number of plants/m2 for each plot. The mean of three subsamples for each plot to be recorded.
    • Fungicide and/or insecticide application information
      • Date, products, rates and water volumes (if applied)
    • Maturity
      • Days from planting to swathing will be based on the majority of the plants in the plot have 60% seed colour change, assessment to be made on all plots.
    • Lodging resistance
      • Measured on the degree of lean to the lower stem of the plant on a 1 to 5 scale. Lodging notes recorded at time of swathing.
    • Height
      • In cm on 10 randomly chosen plants in each plot. Height recorded at swathing.
    • Swathing date
    • Harvest date
    • Seed moisture at harvest
    • Desiccation information (product name and rate, water volume, application date)

    For Field Audit Process ONLY:

    Companies representatives to take and supply the following notes on each variety within the trial. Plots to be assessed again for the following factors (at time of coordinator/committee audit).

    Plot uniformity – notes should be taken through the season on the uniformity of each plot. These notes are to record any factors that have reduced plant stand or yield potential.

    Weed Density & Control – comment on any issues related to weed spectrum, density and control.

    Reasons for Rejecting a Trial or a Site

    Below is a list of reasons that a trial or location should be considered not valid:

    • Hail – any hail at all and this site should be rejected
    • Obvious high disease or insect pressure. Pressure grossly uneven between plots
    • Spray drift that cannot be accounted for and affects the test area to be taken for yield
    • Agronomic issues, site selection issues (pot-holes)
    • Seeding issues/stand establishment, etc.
    • Lack of minimum personnel present at seeding, swathing and/or weigh wagon present at harvest
    • Other acts of God causing big damage:
      • Gophers or other wild-life
      • Tornado – plough winds
    • Yields less than 10bu/ac.
    • Committee has final say whether data is valid

    Rejecting Data Based on Outliers

    1. CPT Coordinator to identify outliers based on deviations from overall mean (yield relative to check) that appear abnormal. Check into agronomic observations from site manager and determine if discrepancies were noted and then decide if data should be excluded.
    2. If the outliers can’t be explained by agronomic observations, then check if they exceed statistical limits established by the committee. One acceptable technique is comparing the deviation relative to standard deviation and applying statistical tests such as Chauvenet’s criterion. This rule basically estimates the probability of a suspect sample being an error using the standard deviation, mean and number of samples. A conservative approach using this criterion in a simpler two or three category format would be:
      • When the number of samples in the overall mean is less than 50, then an outlier is any sample exceeding 2.58 standard deviations.
      • When the number of samples is between 50 and 100, then an outlier is any sample exceeding 2.8 standard deviations.
      • With more than 100 sites of data other than the check, but if so then need to go to 3 s.d.
  • Chauvenet’s criterion - first calculate the mean and standard deviation of the observed data. Based on how much the suspect datum differs from the mean, use the normal distribution function to determine the probability that a given data point will be at the value of the suspect data point. Multiply this probability by the number of data points taken. If the result is less than 0.5, the suspicious data point may be discarded, i.e., a reading may be rejected if the probability of obtaining the particular deviation from the mean is less than 1/(2n).

    Field Scale Canola Variety Trials – Audit Points

    2017 Canola Performance Trial Field-Scale Trial Independent Inspection Protocol:

    1. Only harvest yields determined with calibrated weigh wagons will be considered for CPT reporting.
    2. Field-scale trials should be declared to Rale Gjuric no later than herbicide application date in order to be considered for publication. Declaration should include site cooperator name, site coordinates (legal land description or GPS coordinates) and participating seed companies and contact information.
    3. All field-scale trials must be inspected or audited by an independent qualified agronomist (examples include CCC agronomist, an agronomist with a provincial agrologists designation – MIA, SIA, etc.) in order to be considered for CPT publication. An independent auditor does not include seed company representative.
    4. The official field-scale protocol lists factors for consideration for withdrawing a trial. The inspection/audit should identify at least one of these factors if a trial is being withdrawn from the evaluation process. Both the auditor and the farm cooperator should be in agreement that a trial should be withdrawn.
    5. Similarly, both the auditor / inspector and the farm cooperator should be in agreement that the field-scale trial data is valid and suitable for inclusion in the CPT publication.

     

     

    APPENDIX

    Operational Guidelines for Conducting Field Research

    Due to the confirmed presence of clubroot and Verticillium Strip in Western Canada caution must be taken in canola field research. The following guidelines are recommended for Canola Performance Trials conducted in western Canada.

    1. Establishing Field Sites: Industry personnel should enquire with the grower and local government) if soil diseases such as clubroot or verticillium stripe is known or suspected to be present in the field or surrounding area.

    2.  
    3. Discuss with the grower the type of field practices (from rotations, custom field operators, oilfield activities, etc.), which potentially increase the chance of spreading disease, as a part of risk assessment, as well as past crops and weeds history, noting those in the Brassica family are susceptible.

    4.  
    5. Inform the grower of the precautionary measures being taken to prevent spread of disease. Enquire with the grower if they require any additional measures and what those should be. Growers should feel encouraged to inspect industry equipment and protocols to be satisfied that there is no risk of contaminating their land. If tours are to be conducted, then establish clearly what precautions will be implemented.

    6.  
    7. Industry personnel should discuss with growers the implications of their privacy policy and corporate responsibility in regards to clubroot findings. Due diligence involves to informing the RM (SK) or County (AB) of the exact location of any clubroot findings, so they can fulfill their obligations under The Pest Control Act (SK) or Agricultural Pests Act (AB). There is no requirement to inform the municipal government in Manitoba as clubroot is not a regulated pest under the Manitoba Plant Pest and Disease Act.

    8.  
    9. Fields selected for trials should be sampled prior to planting to determine if clubroot is present. If a susceptible crop is grown, watch for clubroot symptoms. Note that consecutive or tight rotations of susceptible crops, creates a high risk environment for increasing clubroot if it is introduced to the soil. Land in proximity to the entrance way to the field and/or the plot area should be sampled in a W pattern providing 5 samples, which can be submitted as a composite. Sampling canola volunteers/Brassica weeds should ideally be done in the year prior to the trials, if the potential plot location is known.
      • If detected positive by PCR test or by other identifiable means (infected crops or weeds), these fields will not be utilised for research. Inform the grower, the Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture and the RM (SK) or Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development and County (AB) of any clubroot findings, so they can fulfill their obligations under The Pest Control Act.

      •  
      • If clubroot is discovered at the site while the site is in use (e.g. on plants in plots), use of field equipment needs to be minimized, and any such equipment must follow vehicle sanitation procedures. Inform the grower, and appropriate government departments as listed above.

    10. Trucks, trailers, etc. should be parked or unloaded off-site. Any fields known to have clubroot infestation will be off-limits to any vehicle access and will be strongly avoided for foot-traffic as well.

    11.  
    12. Records should be kept of all fields visited and sanitation procedures followed.